Liver function tests(LFT) help your doctor check your liver’s health and detect liver damage. These blood tests measure the levels of certain molecules, proteins and enzymes in your blood. Proteins are large molecules that are needed for your overall health. Enzymes are cellular proteins that help important chemical reactions to occur in your body.LFT is a panel of blood tests which look at various components of liver function-excretory function, synthetic function and also gives clues on bile flow and degree of liver inflammation. Liver function tests may be done for many reasons. LFT may be done as part of wellness check or may be used to screen patients who are at risk for liver disease. Doctors also use them to monitor a person’s liver disease and to check if treatment is working. LFT is a basic blood test, based on the findings in LFT, your liver doctor would proceed with additional blood tests and or scans.
Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme mainly found in your liver. The ALT test measures the level of ALT in your blood. Consistently high levels of ALT in your blood can be a sign of liver damage.
Aspartate Transaminase (AST) is an enzyme found in large amounts in your liver and other parts of your body. The AST test measures the level of AST in your blood. High levels of AST can be a sign of liver damage.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in large amounts in your liver, bile ducts, and other parts of your body. The ALP test measures the level of ALP in your blood. High levels of ALP can be a sign of liver or bile duct damage.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme found in large amounts in your liver, bile ducts, and pancreas; High levels of GGT can be a sign of liver or bile duct damage.
Total Protein measures the amount of protein in your blood. The two main proteins found in the blood are globulins and albumin.
Globulin is a protein made in your liver and helps the immune system fight infections. Low globulin levels can be a sign of liver damage or other conditions.
Albumin is another protein made in your liver. Low albumin levels can be a sign of liver damage and can lead on to bilateral leg swelling.
Prothrombin is a protein made in your liver and helps with clotting blood. A prothrombin time test measures how much time it takes for your blood to clot. A high prothrombin time points towards defective blood clotting mechanism and can be a sign of liver damage.
Bilirubin is a molecule which forms in your body when red blood cells are broken down after they live for approximately 120 days. If your liver is damaged, bilirubin can leak out of your liver into your blood and can cause jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes and urine). It also can come out in the urine making it yellow .